Building consensus is a critical skill for facilitators and consultants who help groups work together to address issues, meet objectives, and resolve problems. Disagreements can arise due to a variety of reasons, and it is essential to understand these reasons to build consensus effectively. In this article, we will discuss three levels of disagreements and five core strategies on how to build consensus. We will focus on three of these strategies that are essential for how to build consensus effectively.

Why do people disagree?

Our work with hundreds of groups over the past five years has led us to categorize disagreements into three basic categories.  That is, people tend to disagree for one of three reasons generally; and more often than not, due to the first reason below:

  1. They have not clearly heard and understood the other’s alternative and reasons for supporting the alternative  (Level 1:  They are not hearing each other)
  2. They have heard and understood, but they have had different experiences or hold different values that result in preferring one alternative to the other (Level 2: They have different values or experiences)
  3. The disagreement is based on personality, past history with one another, or other factors that have nothing to do with the alternatives (Level 3: Outside factors)

The facilitator has techniques to address the first two reasons.  However, a disagreement based on personality or past history (Level 3) can not be resolved in the session.  Therefore it is important that you determine the source of the disagreement as quickly as possible to avoid wasting time.

Addressing a Level 3 Disagreement

How do you recognize a Level 3 disagreement?  If the argument has no logic as its base or the parties arguing show no interest in resolving the argument, then the problem is probably personality or past history.  If this is so, consider the following course of action:

  • Take a break.  Meet with the parties privately to indicate to them you do not believe the issue can be solved in the session.
  • Seek agreement to go to a higher source together for resolution outside the session.  In essence, let a higher level in the organization make the decision by having both parties go to the source together to explain the issue.
  • Don’t attempt to resolve the issue in the session!  Typically issues based on personality or past history take more time than you can afford to give.

If the source of the disagreement is based on Level 1 or Level 2, we recommend applying the appropriate consensus building techniques.  In our four-day course, The Effective Facilitator, we teach five techniques for building consensus:

  • Delineating Alternatives
  • Discussing Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Merging Alternatives
  • Building Criteria Lists and Scoring Alternatives
  • Converging Upon an Alternative

For the rest of this article, we will focus on the first three methods for building consensus.

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Delineating Alternatives

As indicated before, the primary reason people disagree is that they have not clearly heard the other’s alternative and reasons for supporting it.  Often times we can provide a great service just by finding a way to quiet the first side and have them listen to the second side and then quiet the second side and have them listen to the first side.  Just by listening to one another, the people disagreeing often find they are not disagreeing at all! We believe achieving this end is what “Delineating the Alternatives” is all about.

  1. Start with agreement:  “We seem to all agree that…”
  2. Confirm the source of the disagreement: “Where we seem to disagree is…is that right?”
  3. Write the issue under discussion and the alternatives on a single flip chart.  (You may chose to write them as you understand them, or alternatively, have the participants tell you what to write.)


    Issue: Will the sales team use a new CRM?
    Alternative 1: Survey them to find out
    Alternative 2: Do a small pilot
  4. For each alternative, direct specific questions at the supporter of the alternative; record responses on the flip chart.  The questions should result in the group understand the following:
    1. How much?
    2. How long?
    3. What and Who is involved
  5. Once each alternative is delineated, check to determine if consensus has been reached. You can do this simply by focusing on those that disagree. If either appears to have begun transferring allegiance to the other alternative, ask in a non-threatening way if consensus has been reached.

Even if consensus has not been reached, delineating alternatives first will allow the discussion to continue based on a common understanding of the critical issues.  You as the facilitator can then use one of the other consensus building techniques (e.g., Strength and Weaknesses, Merging, Weighted Score, Converging) to facilitate the group to consensus.

Related: Video: 5 Reasons to take The Effective Facilitator

Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses

If consensus is not reached through delineation, move to identifying the strengths and weaknesses of each alternative.

First, have the entire group focus on one alternative and list the strengths of that alternative, then the strengths of the second alternative. Once the strengths have been identified, discuss the the weaknesses of each alternative.

It’s very important to get the strengths of both alternatives FIRST, before discussing either’s weaknesses. This method gives “value” to each alternative before the participants have an opportunity to “devalue” either through the weaknesses discussion.

For many disagreements, the weaknesses are equivalent to the strengths of the competing alternative.  Once the group identifies this relationship, you can save time discussing the weaknesses.

An alternative method is to have each of the dissenters give the strengths of the alternative he/she opposes.  The supporter of the alternative then, and the weaknesses of the one he/she supports.  (This approach encourages active listening and helps the dissenter see the other side.) Remember, do not assign a supporter of an alternative to give its strengths.  This method can further polarize the group. Once the group has identified strengths and weaknesses for each alternative, check to determine if consensus has been reached.

Remember – A Level 2 disagreement is based on different experiences or values. The Strength/Weakness process helps the group identify the underlying values that lead to choosing one alternative over the other. Even if consensus has not been reached, this process provides the group with a clear basis for moving forward. You can then use one of the other consensus building techniques (e.g., Merging, Weighted Score, Converging) to facilitate the group to consensus.

Related: Register for our next webinar on Facilitation

Merging Alternatives

If the group does not reach consensus, the next technique we recommend “Merging.” This is creating a third alternative which combines the key strengths of the prior alternatives.

To start, direct the group to the charts identifying the strengths of each alternative. Next, ask, “For this first alternative, what are the one or two most important strengths?”  (Place an asterisk next to the one or two identified.). Then, identify one or two key strengths for the other alternative.

If possible, draw a single circle that encompasses the key strengths identified from the alternatives. Ask, “Is there a way to create a new alternative that combines these strengths?  Is there an alternative that is … (read the strengths)?  What would it have to look like?”

Once one or more new alternatives is identified, have the group select one which has the most promise and delineate it (See the prior tip on Delineation.)

Merging is often the key approach to creating alternatives that work for the entire group. Typically, we use the Delineate-Strengths/Weaknesses-Merge process in sequence.  You may find that the group is ready to short-cut the process early and create new alternatives right a way!

These techniques can help you move a group forward.  As always, understand the needs of the groups and the nature of the disagreement so you apply the appropriate consensus building strategy.